26/9/09

Un redoble de tambor en la cresta de la historia

En un poema escrito en 1952, mientras viajaba en autostop por toda Francia, un Günter Grass de 25 años vislumbró por vez primera la silueta inconforme y todavía pasajera de Óscar Matzerath. A mediados de ese mismo año, según cuenta el escritor en el texto de 1973 que lleva por título "Ojeada retrospectiva a El tambor de hojalata o el autor como testigo dudoso", "vi entre adultos que tomaban su café a un chico de tres años que llevaba colgado un tambor de hojalata. Me llamó la atención y se me quedó grabado: el ensimismamiento absorto de aquel chico de tres años con su instrumento, y también la forma en que, al mismo tiempo, hacía caso omiso del mundo de los adultos", confesaba Grass.

Solo a comienzos de 1956, aquel poema y la severa visión arlequinesca del niño encontrarían un punto de convergencia: el germen de una novela que tres años después se convertiría en un éxito de crítica y ventas inmediato, sacando de las espesas sombras anónimas a su autor, para situarlo al frente de toda una generación joven, no ya solo de escritores, sino de alemanes y alemanas que se planteaban muchas interrogantes, que tropezaban con múltiples respuestas -no exentas de silenciosos remordimientos y olvidos voluntarios- sobre ese horrible sueño de la razón que produjo un monstruo que se llamó nazismo. Grass no solo se preguntaba lo mismo, sino que lo hacía de una manera tan irónica, tan sutilmente poética, tan escasamente respetuosa de la falsa seriedad del discurso crítico en boga, que su novela encontró inmediatamente detractores, al mismo tiempo que lectores atrapados en las cercanas pero increíbles aventuras de Óscar. El gran escritor y crítico alemán Hans Magnus Enzensberger, luego del lanzamiento de la obra en la Feria del Libro de Frankfurt, escribió con certeza visionaria: "Hay que leer la primera novela de un autor llamado Günter Grass que producirá gritos de alegría y de indignación".

Publicado por primera vez en setiembre de 1959, en El tambor de hojalata Óscar Matzerath, recluido en un sanatorio, se propone contar la historia de su vida, para lo cual debe contar la historia de su familia, la de su ciudad (Danzig, "ciudad-libre" anexionada por Alemania, hoy polaca y con el nombre de Gdansk), la de su país. La auscultación de esas capas superpuestas como las de la cebolla, metáfora a la que Grass apeló para titular el primer tomo de sus memorias, dará como resultado un fresco de la Alemania de la primera mitad del siglo XX, pero también de los afanes y pesares del mundo occidental. La voz de Óscar es la de un adulto que ha dejado de crecer por decisión propia a los tres años, conjuro y salvoconducto que le permitirá situarse como niño-testigo en el centro de la Historia: provoca un desmadre musical tocando su tambor en un mitin fascista realizado en su ciudad, trocando la bélica marcha nazi en un cursi vals de Strauss, poniendo a bailar a todos; ve arder las sinagogas en la Noche de los Cristales Rotos y llora la muerte del judío Segismundo Markus, en cuya juguetería destrozada se proveía de tambores nuevos; resiste con los denostados polacos en la defensa del Correo ante el ataque nazi, en el inicio de la Segunda Guerra Mundial; observa cómo su padre, solícito y satisfecho, cambia el retrato de Beethoven colgado en la pared por uno más sombrío del Führer, en una escena cargada de simbolismo: la imagen eternizada de las clases ilustradas intercambiando su preciado patrimonio artístico burgués, por la tentadora oferta mesiánica de Hitler.

Pero lo que no se había hecho nunca hasta la aparición de esta novela, era tomar con tamaño desparpajo las más diversas fuentes e interpretaciones de lo que le sucedió a Alemania con Hitler y aún el período de reconstrucción. Se me ocurre que solo podían haberlo hecho dos personajes: un loco o un niño. O lo que es mejor: un niño-loco genial, que terminará sus días en un sanatorio como ignorado testimonio vivo de la "obnuvilación en marcha que es la historia", según palabras de Emile Ciorán. Por ello, no en vano la voz de Óscar es vitricida. Un grito suyo no solo rompe los cristales de las ventanas, los anteojos y los relojes, sino cuestiona el cristal con que se mira la realidad y, además (y este es un mensaje endogámico, solo para el gremio), enjuicia el cristal con que la misma literatura es capaz (o incapaz) de mirar la vida.

Ignoro cuánto se sigue leyendo El tambor de hojalata hoy día, pero me animo a decir que Óscar y su tambor son casi tan perdurables como el Quijote y Rocinante. "Pues sí: soy huésped de un sanatorio", dice Óscar en la primera frase de la novela, entre resignado y orgulloso. "Pues sí: que siga resonando el tambor", decimos nosotros los lectores, agradecidos.

* Publicado en el Correo Semanal, diario Ultima Hora, 26 de setiembre de 2009.

27 comentarios:

  1. era nazi como Raitzinger al parecer, pero me gusta ese libro tamboril y "Años de perro"...los dos en Sudamericana originalmente editados.

    ResponderEliminar
  2. Este comentario ha sido eliminado por un administrador del blog.

    ResponderEliminar
  3. Este comentario ha sido eliminado por un administrador del blog.

    ResponderEliminar
  4. Este comentario ha sido eliminado por un administrador del blog.

    ResponderEliminar
  5. Este comentario ha sido eliminado por un administrador del blog.

    ResponderEliminar
  6. Este comentario ha sido eliminado por un administrador del blog.

    ResponderEliminar
  7. Este comentario ha sido eliminado por un administrador del blog.

    ResponderEliminar
  8. Este comentario ha sido eliminado por un administrador del blog.

    ResponderEliminar
  9. Este comentario ha sido eliminado por un administrador del blog.

    ResponderEliminar
  10. Im looking in to getting one, has anyone got experience of one of these:

    http://petitestarzia.blinkweb.com/

    ResponderEliminar
  11. Greets everyone!

    Watch latest movies for free:
    http://www.freemoviez.biz

    The quality is awesome

    Adios amigos

    [URL=http://www.freemoviez.biz][IMG]http://static.thepiratebay.org/img/firefox-22.png[/IMG][/URL]

    ResponderEliminar
  12. A New York escort girl is not just physically very much charming and sexy; she is also the proud owner of some of the finest qualities like hospitality, innocence and submissive.
    Also, Escort girls New York are now available for incall and outcall services for almost all the New York locations.
    All you have to do is to open the website of an escort agency, browse through the various escort categories and make your choice after going through the listed profiles.
    The services provided by Bijou escorts are top notch. New York escort service are also offered to various clients.Bijou available are top class escorts, and you will soon forget about normal things in life and enter the world of love and fantasy. You must remember that using personal escort service is not like using normal intimate service and these are not just simple girls that you are dealing with. These are highly trained and qualified escort personnel's that are there to rejuvenate you dull and boring life. You will be surprised to find out that some of these girls are very well educated.
    [url=http://bijouescorts.com]Staten Island Escort[/url] The growing popularity of a New York escort agency has been the outcome of a number of factors. First, a New York based escort agency believes in offering only the most exciting range of escort fun. Secondly, the rates that such an escort agency charges always comes under one's budget. Thirdly, instant access of girls in and around New York has been another major contributing factor in its success.

    Some agencies also offer the service of having the escorts for a longer period. For this, customers need to pay more and enjoy a pleasant holiday tour with the escort.
    To book for the most desiring lady of your choice, search online for the various websites offering the adult entertainment company presenting a brief profile of the ladies in their gallery along with snapshots of them. The booking process is very easy and user friendly with many viable payment options available. You will get the list of services offered by the agency and all you need to do is choose the one that matches your requirements.
    http://bijouescorts.com The glamorous and the sexiest young escorts from New York are available in several varieties as desired by the clients. They have their own impressive style that explains a statement about their personality and high-end professionalism. You can take these girls as the most stimulating companion on any tour or social events and functions. The erotic ladies with beauty and glamour can offer a wide range of services especially for the clientele. Clients can enjoy peep shows, erotic dancing, twosome and threesome physical entertainment services, cam to cam erotica, live chat, massage services, etc.

    ResponderEliminar
  13. Hi all,

    it seems pretty cool here

    hopefully i can participate in some lively discussions here!

    looking forward to talking to you all. :)

    [IMG]http://www.trueimagehost.com/1/m/47xFMd46ie7B/blank.gif[/IMG]

    ResponderEliminar
  14. hello everybody

    I just thought it would be good to introduce myself to everyone!

    Can't wait to start some good conversations!

    -Marshall

    Thanks again!

    ResponderEliminar
  15. Once upon a time air travel was a great deal simpler than it is today. You called one of a few airlines that flew from your airport, the agent would tell you what flights were available for a given time, and you booked the one you wanted. Airports were always bustling places, especially during the holidays, but as long as you gave yourself adequate time, the process was usually the same. You would check your bags, go through the x-ray machine, get your boarding pass, and wait patiently at the appropriate gate. Once you got on the plane you ate the snack or meal that came with your flight and watched a movie.

    In recent years travel by plane has become significantly more complicated. There are so many different configurations for flights and types of fares. Dire economic circumstances have caused airlines to raise rates and charge extra fees for everything from baggage to blankets. There are complex rules about what you can and cannot carry in your luggage. It can be very difficult to determine whether you are getting the best deal or the best services when you buy an airline ticket. The internet makes the navigation of airlines, airports, and flight itineraries easier, but, even so, be prepared to do some research if you want to find a flight at the best price.

    Here is something up front that might save you time and money right off the bat. If you are traveling within the United States mainland, always look at Southwest Airlines first. Southwest is almost always the best deal you will find. However, Southwest itineraries do not appear on the major travel websites, so always go directly to the airline's website for information. Plug in your travel plans, and you will get a list of all the flights that are available. Southwest typically charges more reasonable prices than other airlines, and there are no hidden fees. The price you see is the price you get although tax and the government fee that is attached to all flights does apply. For lower prices than you can probably get anywhere else look at the "web only" fares, but keep in mind that these fares are not refundable.

    [url=http://samoletnibileti.livejournal.com/]Tips and tricks for cheap air tickets[/url]

    ResponderEliminar
  16. [url=http://www.bollywood-latest.com/]Bollywood Blog[/url]

    [url=http://www.bollywood-latest.com/]Bollywood News[/url]

    [url=http://www.bollywood-latest.com/]Bollywood Gossip[/url]

    [url=http://www.bollywood-latest.com/]Bollywood Actress[/url]

    ResponderEliminar
  17. check out the new free [url=http://www.casinolasvegass.com]online casino games[/url] at the all new www.casinolasvegass.com, the most trusted [url=http://www.casinolasvegass.com]online casinos[/url] on the web! enjoy our [url=http://www.casinolasvegass.com/download.html]free casino software download[/url] and win money.
    you can also check other [url=http://sites.google.com/site/onlinecasinogames2010/]online casinos[/url] and [url=http://www.bayareacorkboard.com/]poker room[/url] at this [url=http://www.buy-cheap-computers.info/]casino[/url] sites with 100's of [url=http://www.place-a-bet.net/]free casino games[/url]. for new gamblers you can visit this [url=http://www.2010-world-cup.info]online casino[/url].

    ResponderEliminar
  18. In 1959 phentermine first received approval from the FDA as an appetite suppressing drug. Phentermine hydrochloride then became available in the early 1970s. It was previously sold as Fastin from King Pharmaceuticals for SmithKline Beecham, however in 1998 it was removed from the market. Medeva Pharmaceuticals sells the name brand of phentermine called Ionamin and Gate Pharmaceuticals sells it as Adipex-P. Phentermine is also currently sold as a generic. Since the drug was approved in 1959 there have been almost no clinical studies performed. The most recent study was in 1990 which combined phentermine with fenfluramine or dexfenfluramine and became known as Fen-Phen.[citation needed]
    In 1997 after 24 cases of heart valve disease in Fen-Phen users, fenfluramine and dexfenfluramine were voluntarily taken off the market at the request of the FDA. Studies later proved that nearly 30% of people taking fenfluramine or dexfenfluramine had abnormal valve findings. The FDA did not ask manufacturers to remove phentermine from the market.
    [url=http://www.buyphentermine1.com]cheap phentermine[/url] Phentermine is still available by itself in most countries, including the U.S. However, because it is similar to amphetamines, it is classified as a controlled substance in many countries (including Australia). Internationally, phentermine is a schedule IV drug under the Convention on Psychotropic Substances.[1] In the United States, it is classified as a Schedule IV controlled substance under the Controlled Substances Act.
    Looking forward, Phentermine is being studied with another medication for obesity. The experimental appetite suppressant drug Qnexa is a mixture of Phentermine and Topiramate.
    Phentermine, in doses clinically used, works on the hypothalamus portion of the brain to release norepinephrine, a neurotransmitter or chemical messenger that signals a fight-or-flight response, reducing hunger. Phentermine works outside the brain as well to release epinephrine or adrenaline causing fat cells to break down stored fat, but the principal basis of efficacy is hunger-reduction. At high doses, phentermine releases serotonin and dopamine as well, but such doses are never used in clinical medicine.
    [url=http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&source=hp&q=www.buyphentermine1.com&aq=f&aqi=&aql=&oq=&gs_rfai=]google for www.buyphentermine1.com[/url]

    ResponderEliminar
  19. if you guys important to pique [url=http://www.generic4you.com]viagra[/url] online you can do it at www.generic4you.com, the most trusted viagra drugstore meant in compensation generic drugs.
    you can buffet into uncover drugs like [url=http://www.generic4you.com/Sildenafil_Citrate_Viagra-p2.html]viagra[/url], [url=http://www.generic4you.com/Tadalafil-p1.html]cialis[/url], [url=http://www.generic4you.com/VardenafilLevitra-p3.html]levitra[/url] and more at www.rxpillsmd.net, the chief [url=http://www.rxpillsmd.net]viagra[/url] roots on the web. well another great [url=http://www.i-buy-viagra.com]viagra[/url] pharmacy you can find at www.i-buy-viagra.com

    ResponderEliminar
  20. visit [url=http://www.eroticwebcams.net]www.EroticWebCams.net[/url] if you want to enjoy the best adult cams.

    ResponderEliminar
  21. [URL=http://www.wallpaperhungama.in/details.php?image_id=18509][IMG]http://www.wallpaperhungama.in/data/thumbnails/123/Zarine Khan-17.jpg[/IMG][/URL]

    [URL=http://www.wallpaperhungama.in/details.php?image_id=18508][IMG]http://www.wallpaperhungama.in/data/thumbnails/123/Zarine Khan-16.jpg[/IMG][/URL]

    [url=http://www.wallpaperhungama.in/cat-Zarine-Khan-123.htm]Zarine Khan [/url]

    [url=http://www.wallpaperhungama.in/cat-Zarine-Khan-123.htm]
    Zarine Khan Wallpapers[/url]

    ResponderEliminar
  22. Greets dudes!

    Cheapest VPN service ever!

    With VPN you can access blocked websites and surf the web anonymously.

    Here are the features:

    - Access blocked websites
    - Surf anonymously
    - Hide your identity
    - Watch Hulu or BBC iPlayer
    - 100Mbps connections
    - Unlimited bandwidth
    - No logs are kept

    You can sign up here. Price is only $3.95/month. :
    [URL=http://www.vpnmaster.com]www.vpnmaster.com[/URL]

    ResponderEliminar
  23. [url=http://bejepewa.t35.com/news_97.html]atlantic city casino hotels[/url] [url=http://bejepewa.t35.com/news_468.html]online horse gambling[/url] [url=http://bejepewa.t35.com/news_399.html]bingo black casino jack pker free[/url] [url=http://bejepewa.t35.com/news_14.html]bet365 gambling online[/url] [url=http://bejepewa.t35.com/news_220.html]gambling online blocker[/url]

    ResponderEliminar
  24. Este comentario ha sido eliminado por un administrador del blog.

    ResponderEliminar
  25. Este comentario ha sido eliminado por un administrador del blog.

    ResponderEliminar
  26. Este comentario ha sido eliminado por un administrador del blog.

    ResponderEliminar